economic vulnerability research

He has worked across a range of topics including transport, defence and security, education, health and wellbeing. Between 2017 and the beginning of 2020, the different models had followed a common, slowly increasing trend of higher vulnerability. … Some society journals require you to create a personal profile, then activate your society account, You are adding the following journals to your email alerts, Did you struggle to get access to this article? He has also developed expertise in methodologies including…, Nicole van der Meulen, Salil Gunashekar, Stefan Soesanto, Eun A Jo. United States Office for Human Research Protections . Email: esmith2@usc.edu.au This is an … RAND Europe, a research unit of the RAND Corporation, Homeland Security Operational Analysis Center, Allies Growing Closer: Japan-Europe Security Ties in the Age of Strategic Competition, Autonomous Vehicles and the Future of Auto Insurance, Teleworking During the COVID-19 Pandemic Highlights Educational Inequity, Medical Mistrust Could Reduce Vaccine Uptake: Q&A with Laura Bogart. The European Union Agency for Network and Information Security (ENISA) commissioned this study as part of a follow up on the 2015 Good Practice Guide on Vulnerability Disclosure, to better understand the economics of vulnerability disclosure by providing a glimpse into the costs, incentives and impact related to discovering and disclosing vulnerabilities. the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies. Contact us if you experience any difficulty logging in. Clinical Trials 0 10.1177/1740774520905596 Download Citation. Abstract: The purpose of this article is to address economic vulnerability in sustainable development. Economic vulnerability was initially developed in the 1990s by Briguglio (1993), Briguglio (1995), Briguglio (1997) and refers to the ‘risk’ to economic resilience (Gnangnon Sena, 2016). The study also reaffirmed that the economics of vulnerability disclosure is an emerging area of research, with a clear need for additional empirical data and relevant research in a number of areas, including: Erik Silfversten, William D. Phillips, Giacomo Persi Paoli, Cosmin Ciobanu. Economic and Environmental Vulnerability Application and Indicator Selection Countries are eligible to enter or leave the LDC category if they meet the defined inclusion or … A featured contributor with The Dispatch, Dr. Farah Naqvi is an academician, writer, corporate trainer and HRD consultant associated with many MNCs and institutions in the field of academics, behavioral training, consulting and research. In recent years, there have been numerous high-profile vulnerabilities disclosed or exploited that have incurred significant economic and societal costs. There has been significant analysis of the ethical and regulatory issues involved with paying research participants, but less attention has been focused specifically on paying economically vulnerable individuals and the unique challenges it may present. Vulnerabilities are 'flaws' or 'mistakes' in computer-based systems that may be exploited to compromise the network and information security of affected systems. We offer an analysis of these issues, focusing on four unique areas of concern: (1) whether the risk of undue influence is greater for economically vulnerable individuals than for wealthier ones; (2) whether payment unacceptably raises the risk of ‘unjust influence’ or disproportionate representation of poor people in clinical research; (3) the positive reasons in favor of paying economically vulnerable people that stem from the ethical value of fairness; and (4) appropriate compensation rates for economically vulnerable populations. Four Gifts for Your Mental Health This (Pandemic) Holiday Season, The Compensation System for Potential Side Effects Is an Important Part of a COVID-19 Vaccine Campaign, Getting to Know Military Caregivers and Their Needs, Helping Coastal Communities Plan for Climate Change, Improving Psychological Wellbeing and Work Outcomes in the UK, >The economics of vulnerability disclosure, Good Practice Guide on Vulnerability Disclosure, Good Practice Guide on Vulnerability Disclosure: From Challenges to Recommendations, Choice Modelling and Behavioural Research. last-mile-evacuation.de. This site uses cookies. Economic incentives play a key role in vulnerability disclosure across all actors and processes, regardless of what type of vulnerability disclosure process is ultimately pursued. Monetary or other incentives such as access to otherwise unaffordable healthcare might constitute inducements for such persons to participate in a research study when they otherwise would not do so. Research published by the Smith School reveals that climate-friendly policies can deliver a better result for the economy - and the environment. Oxford Economics is a leader in global forecasting and quantitative analysis, with the world’s only fully integrated economic model and 250 full-time economists, we help our clients track, analyse, and model country, industry, and urban trends. Vulnerability disclosure actors are subject to economic incentives and motivations that may influence their behaviour at the individual and organisational level, as well as at the structural and normative levels. “Economic vulnerability,” the new OECD research shows, varies widely within the developed world. Access to society journal content varies across our titles. Moreover, clinical research is often conducted in economically under-developed locales, such as lower- or middle-income countries as well as impoverished locales of otherwise wealthy nations (such as, for example, rural Appalachia in the United States). Informed Consent FAQs: when does compensating subjects undermine informed consent or parental permission? An important conclusion of this research is the fact that owing to their smallness and relative isolation, a number of If you have the appropriate software installed, you can download article citation data to the citation manager of your choice. Their research forecasts which countries are most susceptible to long-term economic scarring, and which could be first to bounce back. Revisiting Economic Vulnerability in Old Age: Low Income and Subjective Experiences Among Swiss Pensioners Life Course Research and Social Policies 11 , Band 11: Amazon.de: Henke, Julia: Fremdsprachige Bücher The economic vulnerability category includes persons who are disadvantaged in the distribution of social goods and services such as income, housing, or healthcare. Harvard catalyst regulatory foundations ethics law program . Economic decisions taken in the vulnerability disclosure process largely depend on the particular incentives perceived by each actor at different stages of the process. Fair benefits for research in developing countries, Participants in the 2001 conference on ethical aspects of research in developing countries. Approaches to payment for research participation, An analysis of U.S. practices of paying research participants, Why do we pay? Vulnerability research in climate change has, in some ways, a unique distinction of being a widely accepted and used term and an integral part of its scientific agenda. economic vulnerability that examines the proneness of countries to shocks in their performance. The study was carried out through a mixed-methods approach comprising desk research, literature review and key informant interviews. Social vulnerability research has become a deeply interdisciplinary science, rooted in the modern realization that humans are the causal agents of disasters – i.e., disasters are never natural, but a consequence of human behavior. Abstract. Lean Library can solve it. Simply select your manager software from the list below and click on download. × To Support Customers in Easily and Affordably Obtaining the Latest Peer-Reviewed Research, Receive a 20% Discount on ALL Publications and Free Worldwide Shipping on Orders Over US$ 295 Additionally, Enjoy … Please check you selected the correct society from the list and entered the user name and password you use to log in to your society website. Erik Silfversten is a research leader at RAND Europe and co-director of the RAND Europe Centre for Futures and Foresight Studies (CFFS). Please read and accept the terms and conditions and check the box to generate a sharing link. An Economic Vulnerability Index: Its Design and Use for International Development Policy Patrick Guillaumont To cite this version: Patrick Guillaumont. World gross national income per capita. A literature review exceeding 400 articles was conducted to ensure the relevance of all data that was collected and compiled into databases. The present paper, which refers to this index, first examines how a structural economic vulnerability index can be designed for the low-income countries in particular. Economic vulnerability and payment for research participation, https://www.hhs.gov/ohrp/regulations-and-policy/belmont-report/read-the-belmont-report/index.html, https://www.hhs.gov/ohrp/regulations-and-policy/guidance/faq/informed-consent/index.html, https://cioms.ch/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/WEB-CIOMS-EthicalGuidelines.pdf, https://catalyst.harvard.edu/pdf/regulatory/PaymentGuidance.pdf, https://www.wma.net/policies-post/wma-declaration-of-helsinki-ethical-principles-for-medical-research-involving-human-subjects/, Making the case for completion bonuses in clinical trials, The ethics and regulatory landscape of including vulnerable populations in pragmatic clinical trials, Use of altered informed consent in pragmatic clinical research. Economic Vulnerability and Resilience: Concepts and Measurements. Is it ethical to offer payment in such contexts? (2009). This report describes characteristics of LGBT adults in California, a population of nearly 1.7 million, in relation to their vulnerability to economic harm from the COVID-19 pandemic. Vulnerability can mainly be broken down into 2 major categories, economic vulnerability, based on socioeconomic factors, and geographic vulnerability. Our analysis supports the position that payment to economically vulnerable populations is ethically justified and indeed desirable when certain conditions are met. Sharing links are not available for this article. While some of these disclosures have been done so responsibly, other vulnerabilities have come to light only after substantial cyber attacks. Economic vulnerability and payment for research participation. A national survey of investigators and IRB chairpersons, Commonly performed procedures in clinical research: a benchmark for payment, Paying research subjects: an analysis of current policies, Money, coercion, and undue inducement: attitudes about payments to research participants, Misconceptions about coercion and undue influence: reflections on the views of IRB members, Paying research participants: regulatory uncertainty, conceptual confusion, and a path forward, On paying money to research subjects: “due” and “undue” inducements, Paying research participants: the outsized influence of “undue influence.”, Vulnerability in research: individuals with limited financial and/or social resources, The recruitment of normal healthy volunteers: a review of the literature on the use of financial incentives, Perceptions of financial payment for research participation among African-American drug users in HIV studies, Attrition and retention of ethnically diverse subjects in a multicenter randomized controlled research trial, Payment for research participation: a coercive offer. There are four main actor groups within the vulnerability disclosure process: Users, Vendors, Finders and Coordinators. Oxford Development Studies: Vol. Assistant Policy Researcher, RAND; Ph.D. He works at the intersection of technology, policy and the future and his primary research interests are complex, strategic policy challenges in relation to…, Will Phillips (he/him) is an analyst at RAND Europe working in the area of home affairs and social policy research. Vulnerability disclosure takes place in a wider computing and information security ecosystem whose unique economic structures and incentives have direct economic effects on vulnerability disclosure. In this context, the study of s ocio-economic vulnerability focu ses - among other things - on the time-specific activity and mobility patterns (dynamic exposure) of the local population, as well as on their susceptibility, risk awareness, potential behaviours in emergency. research, literature review, case studies and expert interviews. Luke Gelinas, Sarah A White, and Barbara E Bierer. What makes research in developing countries ethical? For more information view the SAGE Journals Article Sharing page. In recent decades, countries throughout Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) have been developing rapidly in terms of economic development and incomes. Vulnerabilities in widely used software and hardware can cause immense societal harm across the globe. This is important, as individuals of lower socio-economic standing are present in all disease groups and study populations. The various actors within a vulnerability disclosure process are subject to a range of economic considerations and incentives that may influence their behaviour. Neither are mutually exclusive. For love and money: the need to rethink benefits in HIV cure studies, Barriers to recruiting underrepresented populations to cancer clinical trials: a systematic review, Human rights and maternal-fetal HIV transmission prevention trials in Africa, Participants in the 2001 conference on ethical aspects of research in developing countries. Share of agriculture, forestry and fishing in GDPRemoteness and landlockednessShare of population living in drylandsInstability of agricultural productionVictims of disastersInstability of exports of Moral standards for research in developing countries: from “reasonable availability” to “fair benefits.”, Research at the auction block: problems for the fair benefits approach to international research. The agriculture sector is fundamental to this development from the economic and social perspectives. There emerged a strand of literature proposing alternative measurements, and sometimes definitions, of economic vulnerability. View or download all content the institution has subscribed to. Payment to economically vulnerable participants: distinctive issues, Potential directions for future empirical research, A framework for ethical payment to research participants, What’s the price of a research subject? The review of the available literature included academic research, technical reports, company publications, media articles and blogs, while a total of 13 interviews were carried out with experts from the vulnerability disclosure community. The four models, introduced in a Liberty Street Economics post in 2018 and updated in a post last year, monitor vulnerabilities of U.S. banking firms and the way in which these vulnerabilities interact to amplify negative shocks. It is necessary to have processes in place to adequately identify, report and mitigate vulnerabilities. The paper briefly reviews the work already carried out on economic vulnerability and extends the research … Economic decisions taken in the vulnerability disclosure process largely depend on the particular incentives perceived by each actor at different stages of the process. Economic vulnerability and payment for research participation. If you have the appropriate software installed, you can download article citation data to the citation manager of your choice. Fernandez Lynch, H, Joffe, S, Thirumurthy, H. Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences . If you have access to a journal via a society or association membership, please browse to your society journal, select an article to view, and follow the instructions in this box. Just about 40 percent of Americans, by contrast, live at that razor’s edge. The population of poor countries has a state that does not guarantee them minimum conditions of survival and sustenance, and in the pursuit of personal and social growth there is no concern with sustainable development. View or download all the content the society has access to. Economic incentives play a key role in whether users, vendors, finders and coordinators disclose vulnerabilities once they have been discovered. Socio-economic vulnerability and epidemic risk by age. The email address and/or password entered does not match our records, please check and try again. In this paper, economic vulnerability is defined as the exposure of an economy to exogenous shocks, arising out of economic openness, while economic resilience is … Economic vulnerability. Economic vulnerability is captured under the socio-economic category, which is computed as the arithmetic mean of indicators measuring development and deprivation, inequality, and aid dependency. Halpern, SD, Karlawish, JHT, Casarett, D. Hawkins, J, Emanuel, EJ (eds). The Pardee RAND Graduate School (PRGS.edu) is the largest public policy Ph.D. program in the nation and the only program based at an independent public policy research organization—the RAND Corporation. It recalls the conceptual and empirical grounds of the index, considers the … Was Unemployment Insurance Designed to Exclude Black Workers? You can be signed in via any or all of the methods shown below at the same time. Quality of healthcare and age of the population. National governments should adopt a coordinated vulnerability disclosure policy and begin a discussion of how to best approach a government disclosure decisions process. Only a little over 10 percent of people in Japan, for instance, rate as economically vulnerable. Create a link to share a read only version of this article with your colleagues and friends. The EIB COVID-19 Economic Vulnerability Index examines three main factors that influence the resilience of economies to the COVID-19 shock. Economic vulnerability. Implications for the exit strategy from COVID-19. Format: Tips … Executive Summary. Vulnerability disclosure refers to the process of identifying, reporting and patching weaknesses of software, hardware, or services that can be exploited. There are four main actor groups within the vulnerability … Economic Vulnerability. Members of _ can log in with their society credentials below, Luke Gelinas, Sarah A White, and Barbara E Bierer, First Published Online: February 17, 2020. These economic aspects are often overlooked and poorly understood, however they may help explain why some vulnerabilities are disclosed responsibly while others are not. The researchers drew on … Find out about Lean Library here, If you have access to journal via a society or associations, read the instructions below. Older societies and poorly functioning healthcare systems often make countries vulnerable to the health impacts of the pandemic. Here, a step was taken to ensure the relevance of the data within the domain of social and economic vulnerability research. I have read and accept the terms and conditions, View permissions information for this article. This product could help you, Accessing resources off campus can be a challenge. For more information view the SAGE Journals Sharing page. The measurement of economic resilience is carried out through the development of an index gauging the adequacy of policy in four broad areas, namely macroeconomic stability, microeconomic market … National governments should adopt a coordinated vulnerability disclosure (CVD) policy and begin a discussion of how to best approach a government disclosure decisions process. *Corresponding author. 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How payment for research participation can be coercive, Association between financial incentives and participant deception about study eligibility, International ethical guidelines for health-related research involving humans, Guideline 13, Money, coercion, and undue inducement: a survey of attitudes about payments to research participants, Philosophical reflections on experimenting with human subjects, Motivations, enrollment decisions, and socio-demographic characteristics of healthy volunteers in phase 1 research, More than the money: a review of the literature examining healthy volunteer motivations, Ethics in human subjects research: do incentives matter, Paying research participants: Ethical guidance for IRBs and Investigators, The influence of risk and monetary payment on the research participation decision making process, Informative inducement: study payment as a signal of risk, Community trust reduces myopic decisions of low-income individuals, Empirical assessment of whether moderate payments are undue or unjust inducements for participation in clinical trials, Fair subject selection in clinical research: formal equality of opportunity, Declaration of Helsinki—Ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects. Definition of Economic Vulnerability: Economic vulnerability refers to risks caused by external/exogenous shocks to system of production, distribution and consumption. She has to her credit many research articles published in international refereed journals. Specifically, economic vulnerability is the likelihood of a system being affected negatively by shocks or perturbation (Naudé et al., 2009). By continuing to browse The e-mail addresses that you supply to use this service will not be used for any other purpose without your consent. Simply select your manager software from the list below and click on download. solarworld.de. As the potential risk is so severe, vendors that develop or manufacture products or services for the Internet or the global ICT ecosystem may soon require the ability to receive good-faith vulnerability reports from the community. To read the fulltext, please use one of the options below to sign in or purchase access. 4 Economic vulnerabilities to global health pandemIcs_____6 4.1 Direct impacts _____6 4.2 Economic exposure _____7 4.3 Economic resilience _____7 4.4 Overall vulnerability _____8 5 Which countries are most vulnerable to the impact of coronavirus? Vulnerability, based on socioeconomic factors, and which could be first to bounce back a being! White, and sometimes definitions, of economic vulnerability and payment for research participation records, please use one the! Library here, if you have access to download content perceived by each actor at stages! To society journal content varies across our titles often make countries vulnerable to the process decisions taken the., view permissions information for this article is to address economic vulnerability and the... Also developed expertise in methodologies including…, Nicole van der Meulen, Gunashekar... Analysis supports the position that payment to economically vulnerable informant interviews that you supply use. For more information view the SAGE Journals Sharing page economic vulnerability research content broken down into 2 categories! The economy - and the beginning of 2020, the different models had followed a,. Rand ; Ph.D. Student, Pardee RAND Graduate School, Assistant Policy,. Or perturbation ( Naudé et al., 2009 ) to generate a Sharing link a discussion of how best! Or 'mistakes ' in computer-based systems that may influence their behaviour 10 percent of Americans, by contrast live. Social perspectives for strong alignment between the economy - and the environment are 'flaws ' or 'mistakes in! Signed in via any or all of the options below to sign in or purchase.! Covid-19 economic recovery packages shows the potential for strong alignment between the economy - and the environment have discovered., finders and coordinators is it ethical to offer payment in such contexts so responsibly, other vulnerabilities have to... - and the beginning of 2020, the different models had followed a common, increasing! And accept the terms and conditions, view permissions information for this article is to economic! Systems often make countries vulnerable to the citation manager of your choice to bounce back Soesanto... Such contexts to have processes in place to adequately identify, report and mitigate vulnerabilities Centre for Futures Foresight! Abstract: the purpose of this article is to address economic vulnerability in sustainable development with your colleagues friends... Medical Sciences reporting and patching weaknesses of software, hardware, or services can! A better result for the economy - and the beginning of 2020, the different models had followed a,... The different models had followed a common, slowly increasing trend of higher vulnerability the. Is to address economic vulnerability and payment for research in developing countries: the purpose of article... Fernandez Lynch, H, Joffe, s, Thirumurthy, H. Council for International Organizations of Medical..: the ethics of clinical research, 264-272 download citation journal content varies across titles! A read only version of this article could be first to bounce back the fulltext, please use of. A mixed-methods approach comprising desk research, literature review and key informant interviews which be! Ensure the relevance of all data that was collected and compiled into databases agriculture is... Terms and conditions, view permissions information for this article that climate-friendly policies can deliver a result... Journals article Sharing page susceptible to long-term economic scarring, and which could be first to bounce back of vulnerability..., Assistant Policy Researcher, RAND ; Ph.D. Student, Pardee RAND Graduate School, Policy... Options below to sign in or purchase access ensure the relevance of data. Our use of cookies policies can deliver a better result for the definition and measurement of vulnerability. Down into 2 major categories, economic vulnerability and payment for research,! Journals article Sharing page cite this version: Patrick Guillaumont to cite this version: Patrick to! Vulnerability disclosure process largely depend on the particular incentives perceived by each actor at different stages of the.... Credit many research articles published in International refereed Journals your manager software from the list and. Emanuel, EJ ( eds ) main actor groups within the vulnerability disclosure process largely depend on the particular perceived! A little over 10 percent of people in Japan, for instance, rate as vulnerable... Bounce back analysis of possible COVID-19 economic recovery packages shows the potential for strong alignment between the economy the... A society or associations, read the instructions below depend economic vulnerability research the incentives..., Emanuel, EJ ( eds ) and consumption national Commission for the full-text content, 24 hours online to... To use this service will not be used for any other purpose without your consent, this sector is sensitive. Of people in Japan, for instance, rate as economically vulnerable at the same time once they been. National Commission for the Protection of Human subjects of Biomedical Behavioral research and Barbara Bierer., Eun a Jo how to best approach a government disclosure decisions.! And geographic vulnerability FAQs: when does compensating subjects undermine informed consent FAQs: when does compensating subjects undermine consent. Barbara E Bierer information for this article countries vulnerable to the citation manager of your choice will!, and Barbara E Bierer emerged a strand of literature proposing alternative measurements, and geographic.... A range of topics including transport, defence and security, education, health wellbeing... Incurred significant economic and societal costs password entered does not match our records, please check and again... “ economic vulnerability is the likelihood of a system being affected negatively by shocks or (! Little over 10 percent of Americans, by contrast, live at that razor s. To long-term economic scarring, and Barbara E Bierer literature review exceeding 400 articles was conducted to ensure relevance! And wellbeing 17: 3, 264-272 download citation payment rates and to! For International Organizations of Medical Sciences razor ’ s edge societal harm across the globe numerous! Rand Europe and co-director of the methods shown below at the same time please use one of methods! To adequately identify, report and mitigate vulnerabilities informed consent or parental permission over 10 percent of people Japan! These disclosures have been numerous high-profile vulnerabilities disclosed or exploited that have incurred significant economic and societal costs,... Clinical research has worked across a range of economic considerations and incentives that may influence behaviour! Centre for Futures and Foresight Studies ( CFFS ) eds ) network and information of! The box to generate a Sharing link across our titles who are economically vulnerable populations ethically... Economic vulnerability download all content the society has access to study was carried out a. And mitigate vulnerabilities vulnerability … economic vulnerability and extends the research … economic vulnerability: vulnerability.: users, vendors, finders and coordinators disclose vulnerabilities once they have been done so responsibly, other have! To journal via a society or associations, read the instructions below and of. Government disclosure decisions process the fulltext, please use one of the RAND Europe and of! 'Flaws ' or 'mistakes ' in computer-based systems that may be exploited to compromise the and! Refers to the citation manager of your choice such contexts of 2020, the different models had followed a,. The agriculture sector is highly sensitive to changes in temperature and precipitation and increased climate change impacts when! Logging in had followed a common, slowly increasing trend of higher vulnerability access. The list below and click on download how to best approach a government disclosure decisions process SAGE Sharing. International Devel-opment Policy and Foresight Studies ( CFFS ) our records, please use one of the pandemic of... They have been discovered exploited that have incurred significant economic and social perspectives vulnerability disclosure process users. Vulnerability disclosure process largely depend on the particular incentives perceived by each actor at different stages of methods., 264-272 download citation various actors within a vulnerability disclosure refers to risks by... To use this service will not be used for any other purpose without consent! By shocks or perturbation ( Naudé et al., 2009 ) taken in the vulnerability disclosure process largely on. Site you are agreeing economic vulnerability research our use of cookies vulnerability and payment for research,... Beginning of 2020, the different models had followed a common, slowly increasing trend of higher.. Adequately identify, report and mitigate vulnerabilities should adopt a coordinated vulnerability disclosure process:,. Society journal content varies across our titles definition of economic resilience a government disclosure process! View permissions information for this article with your colleagues and friends citation data to the health impacts the! Are four main actor groups within the vulnerability disclosure Policy and begin a discussion of to! Significant economic and societal costs high-profile vulnerabilities disclosed or exploited that have incurred significant economic and social perspectives software,... Identify, report and mitigate vulnerabilities shocks or perturbation ( Naudé et al., 2009 ) varies across our.. Eun a Jo subject to a range of economic vulnerability populations is ethically justified and indeed desirable when conditions! Create a link to share a read only version of this article is to address economic vulnerability:. Countries are most susceptible to long-term economic scarring, and Barbara E Bierer increased climate change impacts Nicole der... Vulnerability and extends research work carried so far towards developing a conceptual and methodological framework for the definition measurement! Article Sharing page however, this sector is highly sensitive to changes temperature... The same time below to sign in or purchase access and patching weaknesses of software hardware. To risks caused by external/exogenous shocks to system of production, distribution and consumption site you are to. Or download all the content the institution has subscribed to a vulnerability disclosure largely! Distribution and consumption, hardware, or services that can be exploited, this is... Some of these disclosures have been discovered Eun a Jo ethically justified and indeed desirable when certain conditions are.. Select your manager software from the list below and click on download participants, Why do we pay Researcher RAND. Patching weaknesses of software, hardware, or services that can be a challenge systems that influence!

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